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Womens experiences of intimate partner violence

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Please contact mpub-help umich. For more information, read Michigan Publishing's access and usage policy. Participants shared their knowledge and practical experiences in working with Muslim women IPV survivors. Themes emerged in discussions with service providers included: Immigration, Collectivist and Authoritarian Culture, Patriarchy, Honour and Shame, and Faith.

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Intimate Partner Violence

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Please contact mpub-help umich. For more information, read Michigan Publishing's access and usage policy. Participants shared their knowledge and practical experiences in working with Muslim women IPV survivors. Themes emerged in discussions with service providers included: Immigration, Collectivist and Authoritarian Culture, Patriarchy, Honour and Shame, and Faith. These findings revealed the multiple cultural elements that mutually intersect and interact within the broader cultural values that drive IPV resources.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, service utilization, Muslim women, social and cultural context, cultural competency. The effects of intimate partner violence IPV on women are devastating. Although men can be the victims of IPV, the rate of occurrence and the severity of violence is much lower Kimmel, Evidence shows that women are five times more likely to require medical attention and hospitalization Statistics Canada, This gap led to the emerging body of literature that highlights IPV in the context of race, ethnicity, religion, class, and citizenship that intersects with gender oppression as well as the social structural underpinnings of IPV in diverse and underrepresented communities.

The intervention and prevention of IPV requires services, programs, and policies that are culturally informed and responsive to the varied needs of minority women. Without such culturally informed practice, services will have either nonexistent or detrimental effects. This study explored through qualitative inquiry, experiences of intimate partner violence IPV from the viewpoint of frontline service providers who have worked with immigrant Muslim women in their respective anti-violence agencies.

This study examined the sociocultural context of IPV and the ways in which these contextual factors intersect with the structural system of oppression and marginalization experiences of immigrant Muslim women.

For the purpose of this study, the term Muslim women represents immigrant women who have migrated from a country of origin where the predominant religion and culture is vested in the Muslim faith. The intent in the use of the term Muslim women is not meant to categorize all women of Muslim faith and culture without also acknowledging there is considerable variation reflected in the racial and ethnic differences as well as the extent and degree of immersion in the faith and culture.

Among the largest and fastest growing group of minority women in Canada whose experiences of IPV have been left unexplored are Muslims. Statistics Canada indicates that over 1 million individuals identified themselves as Muslim, representing 3. The number and the percentage of Muslims are projected to significantly rise in Europe, North America, New Zealand and Australia; The Future of the Global Muslim Population Report estimates the number of Muslims in Canada is expected to nearly triple in the next 20 years, to 2.

The majority of Muslims in Canada are immigrants who have arrived in the past decade Survey of Muslims in Canada, Pre- and post-migration stresses can compound the already vulnerable position of women who are in abusive relationships.

Zakar and colleagues found that the process of immigration exacerbated tensions among Pakistani Muslim spouses due to various immigration stressors such as threats to cultural identity and acculturation distress, cross-cultural parenting, poverty and social isolation. For example, the fear of losing immigration status can cause women to endure abuse in silence. Furthermore, it is difficult for many immigrants including Muslims to navigate the differing perspectives regarding IPV within both a traditional cultural context of their home country and the sociopolitical systems in the host societies.

A violent act against a spouse may be considered a family matter which is juxtaposed to North American cultures where it is viewed as a crime that is the basis of an assault charge against the perpetrator.

The impact of migration on women can be best understood in relation to structural violence and the systems of oppression. Further, IPV is not the sole type of violence experienced by Muslim women.

Instead, these women may experience other forms of violence that are embedded within the social system. These include racial discrimination, Islamophobia, and waves of xenophobic rhetoric and policies.

Oyewuwo-Gassikia, ; Riley, The structural violence within pre- and post-migration settings can increase the risk for IPV. This risk increases through the transmission of structural violence across socio-ecological contexts, from the societal to the family system level Catani, The perpetrator of violence can be a survivor of war and torture prior to migration as well as a victim of discrimination and marginalization upon migration.

The themes of past studies revolve around three dimensions: culture, religion, and migration. Collectivist cultures emphasize the value of interdependent relationships and group loyalty. The goals and desires of the collective take precedence over individual goals and behaviors, and individual behaviors are shaped largely by group norms Yoshioka, Within individualist cultures, the needs and rights of the autonomous self are highly valued, and personal choice and individual freedom are emphasized McAuliff, The ummah in this study may refer to first the extended family, followed by friends from the mosque and local religious leaders that provide support and guidance for the Muslim communities.

These women decided to leave their relationships only after severe physical and psychological sequelae, what is referred to as the point of saturation. The collectivist nature of the culture is well understood with respect to common cultural values of honor, integrity, and dignity. The stigma of divorce is related to the cultural notion of family as being central to society, and individuals are subordinates to both family and society Hassouneh-Phillips, Therefore, members of the family, particularly women, are socialized to make all the necessary sacrifices to maintain family cohesiveness in protecting it from dissolution Ayyub, ; Haj-Yahia, Taken together, the collectivist concepts are tied to notions of family privacy and secrecy which may lead women to keep family matters private.

This can have implications for low levels of interest in seeking formal support from local agencies. Kulwicki and colleagues showed that IPV is regarded and treated as a private issue among their studied set of Arab Muslim women, reporting shame in bringing it into public view.

This view contrasts with the mainstream perspective in Canada that emphasizes IPV as a public health issues that requires legal, social, and psychological remedies.

The third theme of this study explores IPV in relation to faith and religious belief. For many women including Muslims, religion and faith are important aspects of personal identity. Religion can provide a source of support, liberation, and healing.

Yet, it may also jeopardize the vulnerable position of women in the context of IPV. Hassouneh-Phillips explored the role of spirituality in the lives of Muslim women IPV survivors. These findings underscored the complex role of religiosity as both a source of strength, but also an increase in vulnerability. Religion can provide Muslim women with an important means of coping with ongoing violence, while in other instances, it can also create barriers to safety.

On this continuum there were two opposite endpoints—those who retained their original belief systems, and those who rejected them.

In the middle were those who remained Muslim but chose to reinterpret doctrine that was already being manipulated to justify the violence. It is crucial that service providers and faith leaders understand the significant influence that belief systems have on women, abusers, and their faith communities. Drawing on an intersectional lens, this study presents qualitative findings regarding intimate partner violence in the lives of some Muslim women. Intersectionality is based on the well-known principle that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

Multicultural research on IPV is an emerging field, and there is relatively little research that pays particular attention to Muslim women IPV survivors. Social media has largely depicted violence against Muslim women through narratives of forced veilings and marriages and domestic homicides; these place Muslim cultures as inherently oppressive toward women.

These fixed images further marginalize Muslim communities, discouraging them from societal involvement and impeding access to formal services. The traditional feminist approach to intimate partner violence has largely emphasized the common experiences of women survivors in the interests of forging a strong movement to end violence.

However, this approach has increasingly been questioned by scholars and activists who recognize the need to give voice to women whose experiences of abuse are underrepresented in the current IPV literature. Service providers are at the forefront of support to survivors, and have invaluable knowledge regarding the variety of ways in which women generally, and Muslim women in particular, present to their communities. Earlier research studies on the subject have drawn on qualitative methods in furthering an appreciation of the nature of the challenges in providing service and support to these women.

In light of the modest amount of research in the field, the primary concern was with stories, opinions, and beliefs, which were gathered from the narratives provided by these participants. A phenomenological design was employed to explore the perspectives and experiences of frontline anti-violence service providers regarding Muslim woman survivors of IPV.

Phenomenology is both a philosophy and a research methodology used to study the nature of lived experiences Arminio, Creswell and colleagues indicate that a phenomenological design is appropriate when the purpose of the research is to reduce the personal experiences of a phenomenon as described by participants, and collect these experiences through an in-depth exploration of that phenomenon to focus on the universal essence of the problem.

In contrast to generating a theoretical model, phenomenologists describe what participants have in common as they experience a phenomenon Creswell et al. Through phenomenology, aspects of individual experience are formed based on perceptions. Data in the form of narratives from persons who have experience working with the phenomenon service providers are elicited, from which composite descriptions of the experience are formed.

Steps for conducting a phenomenological study include a identifying a phenomenon to which a researcher is committed; b investigating the phenomenon as it is experienced rather than conceptualized; c reflecting on the essential themes that characterize the phenomenon; d describing the phenomenon through the art of writing and re-writing; e maintaining a strong and pedagogical relation to the phenomenon; and f balancing research context by considering the parts within the whole Van Manen, The Muslim Centre focuses on the provision of advocacy, counseling, and support services in a safe, non-crisis, non-residential setting, as well as collaboration and partnerships with mainstream organizations to build a bridge between Muslim-specific and mainstream service organizations.

The quantity and quality of experience in working with Muslim women varied across participants, ranging from 1 year to 32 years of experience. Participant recruitment was conducted through purposive sampling that sought participants who possessed knowledge and experience regarding Muslim women and IPV. Purposive sampling was aligned with the primary research questions i. Purposive sampling is appropriate for small, in-depth studies with a research design that is based on the gathering of qualitative data focused on the exploration and interpretation of experiences and perceptions Ellison, In addition, this study required prescreening of participants based on their prior experience in working within antiviolence settings with Muslim women survivors; the participants could reflect and draw on their experiences, though the levels of experience and contact would vary among them.

All potential participants were sent a letter of information regarding the purpose, risks, and benefits of the study. Final participation in the study required participants to sign a consent form reflecting their willingness to participate in the study. Research ethics approval for the study was obtained through the Research Ethics Board of the University of Western Ontario.

Prior to collecting research data, the thematic questionnaire was reviewed by a non-participating clinical psychologist to ensure the clarity of the probe questions. Each interview was between 60 and 90 minutes in length. Each participant was contacted via phone to confirm knowledge of the subject matter and willingness to participate in the study. These interviews were recorded and transcribed producing a complete and accurate record of participant responses; follow-up questions were asked where needed.

The audiotapes were transcribed into text and content analysis was employed to code the transcripts. According to Ellison , content analysis looks for the presence of words, phrases, or concepts in the text and endeavors to understand their meanings and relationships to each other.

This study had particular interest in the frequency with which certain words occur in the texts, indicating what is most likely to be significant; data were collected and analyzed simultaneously through qualitative content analysis using the five-step method proposed by Graneheim and Lundman In the first step, the recorded interviews were immediately transcribed and used as the main data for the study.

In the second step, the recorded voices were listened to several times, handwritten texts were frequently reviewed, and a decision was made to divide the text into meaningful units. In the third step, the meaningful units were abstracted and coded. The outputs were then coded and summarized. In the fourth step, the codes were classified into subthemes based on comparisons regarding their similarities and differences.

The accuracy of the interview, data collection, and analysis based on the systematic methodology of research were confirmed by the research supervisor. Following the analysis of the data and the identification of themes, inter-rater reliability was conducted by an impartial coder to review the emerging thematic analysis at multiple stages in the research process and to test coding consistency.

Sixteen participant quotes coded by the impartial coder were assigned themes, for an inter-rater reliability of Eight frontline service providers participated in semi-structured interviews to share their perspectives and lived experiences in working with Muslim women survivors of intimate partner violence.

The division of participants was made solely for understanding various services and exploring the topic from different perspectives.

The lived experience of women victims of intimate partner violence.

Practice Goals Intimate partner violence can be defined as abuse of a woman by a male or female partner with whom she currently is, or formerly was, in an intimate relationship Ramsay et al. Advocacy interventions for women who have experienced intimate partner violence aim to empower women and link them to helpful services in the community. Target Population Advocacy interventions are targeted at abused women who are still with their partners, or who have left the abusive relationship.

We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Intimate partner violence IPV strongly predicts depression, but it is unknown if women experiencing IPV can benefit from depression treatments in contexts where depression and IPV are prevalent.

Intimate partner violence IPV , defined as sexual violence, stalking, physical violence, and psychological aggression perpetrated by an intimate partner, affects nearly a third of all Americans at some point in their lives. Although IPV affects men and women of all ages, women, particularly young women and women of color experience IPV at higher rates. An estimated 6. People who are victimized by their partners are more likely to experience health problems and both the Centers for Disease Control CDC and U. Evidence supports the role that clinicians have in assisting women who have experienced IPV and reducing adverse outcomes.

Women’s experiences of Domestic Violence and Abuse

The information and resources listed here can be easily adapted to other groups and settings. It is vital for all staff employed by health, behavioral health, and integrated care organizations to understand the nature and impact of trauma and how to use principles and practices that can promote recovery and healing: Trauma-Informed Approaches. In addition to information and resources on IPV, this page provides links to resources on Trauma and Trauma-Informed Approaches , as well as Suicide Prevention , that we encourage you to explore. This type of violence can occur among heterosexual or same-sex couples and does not require sexual intimacy. IPV affects millions of people in the U. One in six women and one in 19 men in the U. Having experienced other forms of trauma or violence, such as child sexual or physical abuse or exposure to parental or caregiver IPV, is an important risk factor for perpetrating and experiencing IPV. IPV is also linked to increased risk for suicide in both boys and girls who experience teen dating violence TDV and for women exposed to partner violence. These women are nearly five times more likely to attempt suicide as women not exposed to partner violence. IPV is also a precipitating factor for suicide among men.

CrimeSolutions.gov

If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Background: Intimate partner violence IPV is a common form of interpersonal violence and impacts the health and well-being of victims over their lifetime. Many victims of IPV experience multiple types of victimization throughout their lives, often starting in childhood.

Metrics details. Intimate partner violence IPV is exceedingly common in conflict and post-conflict settings.

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Visit our resources page for information and contact details of support organisations. Publication date: April Date of review: February Need help now?

We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. The aim of this paper is to further our understanding of the dynamics of violence and abuse by investigating the contextual, situational, and relational aspects of IPV among young women. We specifically ask what meanings are attributed to the abuse and what role digital media plays. The analysis included both thematic and narrative analysis.

Intimate partner violence IPV is associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes. Poor ANC uptake can also further exacerbate adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression were employed to examine the association between IPV and ANC service utilization. The mean age of the participants was Overall,

Legal responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) can determine whether and how those exposed to IPV seek help. Understanding the victim's perspective is.

Read terms. This information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence IPV is a significant yet preventable public health problem that affects millions of women regardless of age, economic status, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or educational background. Individuals who are subjected to IPV may have lifelong consequences, including emotional trauma, lasting physical impairment, chronic health problems, and even death.

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Comments: 2
  1. Shagul

    Well, well, it is not necessary so to speak.

  2. Motaxe

    I would like to talk to you on this question.

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